Trischa Zorn on the State of Paralympic Swimming

Through a decades-long career that included seven Paralympic Game appearances, Trisha Zorn garnered 55 medals — 41 of them gold — making her the most decorated Paralympic athlete of all time. She also served on the Olympic Athlete Advisory Committee, at one point owned eight World Records, and was inducted into the Paralympic Hall of Fame in 2012. Needless to say, she understands the ins-and-outs of para swimming.

After swimming career ended, Zorn taught in the Indiana public school district. She decided to go to law school about a decade ago, and now works for the US government in the Department of Veteran Affairs doing overseas legal work for veterans or beneficiaries who are unable to handle their own finances.

With para swimming becoming increasingly marred by cheating through intentional misrepresentation (IM), SwimSwam spoke with her last week to get her thoughts on the state of the sport and how to clean it up.

Foremost, Zorn thinks that World Para Swimming (WPS) should reduce the subjectivity of the classification process and standardize classification for any given impairment. Additionally, she stressed the importance of athlete education both around policy and general conduct.

Read the full interview below.

SwimSwam: Can you give us a history of intentional misrepresentation as you see it?

Zorn: The issue with classification has always been there. Not so much when I first started to be involved in the Paralympics. I would say probably around 2000 it became really evident, and people started questioning different countries and athletes and what class they were put into. At that time I don’t think it was so much the physical impairments — it was more the visually impaired classes.

But now it’s become apparent that all classification, and the way they classify, has really become a major hindrance to the sport and to the Paralympic name and brand. I think that our whole purpose and platform is to show society that just because you have some form of physical disability, you are able to compete at the same level as your counterparts who don’t. When that’s tarnished, by the cheating scandals and people who say they are physically disabled — and they’re really not — just for their own benefit, it really does tarnish the Paralympic name.

SwimSwam: Can you expand on how that’s changed since your time in the sport?

Zorn: When I first started, especially here in the US, the Paralympics were not a household name. So it’s been a major goal to try to raise the Paralympics both from a marketing standpoint, sponsorships of athletes, or even just the money for medals, which I think has been an issue too based on the issue of classification. It’s kind of cascaded into having no standardization of classification for certain things, but I think it seems like they’re trying to do that.

SwimSwam: Given that World Para Swimming has already announced a new classification process for 2018, what are your thoughts on how the process should go?

Zorn: I think that the IPC needs to come to a consensus of ‘OK, this is the way that this particular disability will be classified,’ not so much based on how you swim while you’re in the water, or how you can run. Not so much with the visually impaired, but with the other classes — S1-S10 with mobility issues — that’s really come about because it’s hard. It’s confusing when you’re watching, because you think ‘how can a double-leg amputee be evaluated in the same light as someone who just has a single arm amputation?’ So it’s hard and not defined very well. I think there is different interpretation from every Paralympic organization within the whole world.

SwimSwam: To clarify, you think it would be more effective to classify based outright on impairment rather than having a subjective classification process?

Zorn: Correct.

SwimSwam: You mentioned that while you were in the sport, you thought there was some skepticism towards the visually impaired. Can you speak to that a bit more?

Zorn: It’s pretty well-known within the sport that you have countries that aren’t as ‘fortunate,’ I guess, especially if they’re physically disabled. It’s known that for example in China, at first their philosophy was that “we don’t have any disabled people.” And then all of the sudden, they had hundreds of them. It started in the Sydney games. It’s hard to explain — but athletes are athletes and you know if something is going on. And so, we knew, but when you asked as an athlete for a protest or something, you’re kind of put back because they didn’t want the US to look bad. So the protests were not moved forward.

SwimSwam: What specifically might you have protested?

Zorn: For me personally, there was a girl who had never been in the Paralympics before and was supposedly in my class, and she all of the sudden came in — nobody had heard of her and she hadn’t been in other competitions — and she came to the Paralympics and won five or six events. She went to one other Paralympics and that was it. Not that that was that big, but I think other athletes in our class knew that her sight wasn’t truly what she professed it to be. But she was able to get classification.

SwimSwam: Do you think that classification issues are coming from the inside, as in officials are corrupt, or is it just athletes being really good at cheating the system?

Zorn: For the visually impaired, unless you have some really, really spectacular medical equipment that actually shows stuff, which costs thousands of dollars (which the IPC is not going to spend), people are going just based on what their own physician says, or whatever doctor they have. I can’t speak for other countries and what they do, or how their system is to get medical documentation, but here, I could go to my doctor and say what I can’t see, and they’ll write down what I’m saying. I think until technology is pushed to the forefront, especially just for the visually impaired, and that documentation and evidence can be provided, you’re still going to have people who are just not being very truthful.

For those who are impaired mobility-wise, I think it’s similar because anybody in a wheelchair can say ‘I can get in the water but I can’t move my legs.’ That was one of the issues just recently in the last Paralympic games with a couple of Australian athletes. It’s a very touchy situation. But I guess when athletes get to a point, and they’re being sponsored by their country, and they get certain kickbacks and money and stuff like that, people will do certain things to get rewarded that way.

You don’t want to outright say it, but desperate people do desperate things. It’s just my opinion – not just in the Paralympics, I think it happens in the Olympic sports too – if I’m in a third world country and know that I will get certain kickbacks in order to support my family, I’m going to do anything I can in order for that to happen.

SwimSwam: We know that the IPC is developing a whistleblower policy. Do you think that will be effective in cleaning things up?

Zorn: I’m all for a whistleblower act or policy in the interest of business, I think it’s appropriate. But I think in the Paralympics people have not been as active to report certain things, just because, again, we asked to do an appeal, we were told that would put a bad light on the sport. I think it’s a progression and I think it may not show it now, but it’s important that athletes who may want to blow a whistle to a certain act be protected.

SwimSwam: Is there anything specific beyond anonymity that you’d want to see included in protection for athletes?

Zorn: It’s pretty generic – you know that there’s some kind of act, whether somebody is cheating outside of the competition or you have some evidence (more than just that somebody said something), I think there needs to be criteria about convincing evidence that is the reason why you’re making that statement. It’s pretty bold when you make a statement like that. There needs to be some really set, strict criteria before you can make that accusation.

SwimSwam: What was your takeaway from serving on the Athletes Council, and could that sort of group be leveraged to improve para swimming?

Zorn: Being a part of that group, first as part of the general group and then as part of the leadership council, it was a pretty progressive thing during that time. Whether it be just trying to get athletes aware of what their rights are – one of the biggest ones we did was sexual harassment policies that are kind of coming out now in a lot of sports that are really important. Just to know that athletes have to be educated is really important. It kind of goes to the Paralympics. When I was in the sport I didn’t really know ‘well this is what the classifications are and this is why they are set this way.’ I think education is really important, especially for the Athletes Council – that’s what their main focus is.

SwimSwam: What do you think would help improve coverage of the sport in general?

Zorn: I think anything that’s inspiring, especially because there’s so much that is in Paralympic sport. And today, especially anything military (though I maybe be biased working for the VA), brings people to watch and be more connected with the Paralympics. Knowing that there is that outlet for them to be a part of sports when they come back from service.

SwimSwam: Thanks for your time.

Leave a Reply

5 Comment threads
19 Thread replies
Most reacted comment
Hottest comment thread
5 Comment authors
newest oldest most voted

It looks like the IPC has a history of looking the other way on these matters. I think it is evident that there is a conflict of interest where if they find someone guilty of IM then it makes the organization look bad. Their reaction to the hearings in Great Britain earlier this month was proof that they dont want to admit there is a problem while at the same time they have decided to retest almost all the swimmers and track and field athletes next year. I’ve heard second hand that machine testing of VI athletes could be cleaned up if they required the machine testing to verify everyone. I dont know if this is true or not just… Read more »


There is a definite pattern of choosing to turn a blind eye when IM is brought to their attention. Incredibly stupid and unethical. I’m guessing that they have always relied on people just giving up over time but I also reckon that they have gone too far now and can’t admit what a farce classification is. They have also seriously underestimated just how fed up and disgusted people, including athletes, are of the current mess and their unwillingness to address it. Their reclassification exercise will not address a single thing. It’s nothing more than a paper exercise to tick the boxes Let’s see what ANZAN have to say about a certain Flinders University Neurologist and Lakeisha Patterson’s Left Hemiplegic CP… Read more »


If it is true that Patterson’s classification relied heavily on the report from this Adelaide neurologist who was never involved in her care or treatment, and organised by Swimming Australia, then exposing her cheating and fraud would be pivotal in exposing the whole para swimming cheating debacle involving complicity from the IPC and Australian NGB. The evidence on her is just staggering.


There is no ongoing care or treatment provided for most mild to moderate CP patients. If you can tie your shoes and feed yourself then they are not interested in seeing you anymore. Please do not spread misinformation about the treatment of CP it is not something you treat the rest of your life. After the damage is done it can be relatively stable and there isnt much they can do to change that.


I did not say anything about CP being treated “for the rest of your life” and that is totally irrelevant to this discussion. There is no misinformation. Patterson is 18. She would have been in the paediatric system, not the adult system where I agree care is unlikely to be ongoing in any intensive way. Patterson presents (sometimes) with a clawed hand and toe walking. She would have had input from an overseeing paediatric neurologist, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, podiatrists and others. With that extreme toe walk that is on display at times she would have tried Botox – need neurologist involvement- as well as casting, AFOs- all requiring medical input. I do not know where you are from TAA but… Read more »


TAA, Most young adults with mild cp do have ongoing care plans consisting (in the main) of Physiotherapy and Podiatry and Patterson would have been extremely well supported by a Paediatric Neurologist and a team of specialists growing up. Patterson’s on/off toe walk is extreme and would have caused great concern to any number of specialists. She would have undergone splints, casting, Botox and indeed would still wear an Ankle Foot Orthotic to provide ongoing stretch and corrective support. Same for that ‘clawed’ hand. Plus, don’t forget that she is involved in elite swimming therefor she would be treated by a Physiotherapist and Massage team regularly for maintenance. My point TAA is that she has been diagnosed, allegedly, previously unseen… Read more »


Well summerised by Fred and LMA regarding the care for paediatric neuro conditions in Aust. Don’t let it be forgotten that LP was internationally classified as an S7. Fair to assume that vast majority of S7 swimmers have a reasonably complex presentation that would usually require a multi disciplinary team of specialists and on going allied health care, especially for the unusual and extremely rare combination of CP, early onset Parkinsons and epilepsy that equated to an S7 classification. By age 18 there should be several volumes of medical documentation, evidence of casting, AFO’s with practical supportive footwear for the toe walking etc. The level of medical input since birth, as is claimed for this complex presentation and an S7… Read more »


And to add on top of all the toe walking etc the multitude of pictures of Miss Patterson wearing high heels to awards nights etc. can anyone please explain to me how someone with her so called degree of CP be able to wear said shoes. I’ve had these pictures sent to me and find it hard to believe that she can stay upright for hours on end. The changes in her classification being anywhere from a 7,8 and 9 shows that not only is there something sinister going on here but that there is also a big problem with the current classifiers within the system.


Yes Mary it certainly is baffling! It would only be a dream for most living with more severe CP to get around in heels! Not to mention doubled up with symptoms of Parkinsons severe enough to be classified as an S7. To wear anything but very supportive and practical lace up/velcro shoes with an AFO to support that dead leg and extreme toe walking would be highly unusual and should send red flags.
The myriad of classifications in such a short space of time is nothing but a debacle of incompetency and inconsistency.


I agree with Mary that there is a very valid concern regarding the integrity and ethics of the classifiers (and others within NGBs/IFs/NSO & IPC) currently in the system. I’m struggling with the following :- Lakeisha Patterson bench & water tested twice as S7 in February and April 2014. Classed up to S8 after observation swim (breast stroke). Wildly different swim techniques (therefor alarming) from March 2014 and April 2014 were recorded by their Sport Scientist Dr Formosa. If you watch her SB7 observation swim April 2014 closely, she does not have a clawed hand or a dead leg, that only appeared in her following swims. Shocking. IPC Swimming Classification Rules & Regulations May 2011 : Class S7 & SB7… Read more »


On file they would/should have the IPC medical form along with any copies of neurologist, medical imaging reports and any paperwork the NGB deem useful for classification. Also past classification paperwork as well. Also, you may or may not be aware, another bit of interesting information that is making the rounds as to her past classification in Indianapolis is that she was witnessed to have completed an intense training session prior to classification. If this is correct then IPC should have made her classification null and void until another time.


So she was a ‘tired’ able bodied person attending classification for disabled sport? If true then her support staff ought to be ashamed and also brought to task by the IPC. As for the classifiers, it does make one wonder if classification outcomes are actually pre-arranged. How could Lakeisha Patterson possibly have been classified based on non existent Cerebral Palsy? Would the alleged neurologist, a Dr Michael Harborn, signed documentation attesting her CP diagnosis have born significant weight on their decision if they themselves saw no evidence of CP? They can’t all be experts in all Impairments.


She was witnessed to do the training session by multiple people. Her along with another swimmer. Starting to look very much like outcomes may be pre arranged prior to actual classification.


Who was the other swimmer?


A girl by the name of Paige Leonard or similar.

About Torrey Hart

Torrey Hart

Torrey is from Oakland, CA, and majored in media studies and American studies at Claremont McKenna College, where she swam distance freestyle for the Claremont-Mudd-Scripps team. Outside of SwimSwam, she has bylines at Sports Illustrated, Yahoo Sports, SB Nation, and The Student Life newspaper.

Read More »