Why is a Swimming Mile only 1650 Yards?

This is the first installment in a series of articles to research and unravel the mysteries of swimming.  These mysteries range from serious to silly, but always in good fun, and will hopefully help to satisfy your inner swim-nerd. If you have any good mysteries (or bad ones, we’re not picky!) please send them our way via the “submit content” page, and we’ll see if we can figure them out!

When is a mile not really a mile? When it’s measured in a pool.

Today’s question was inspired by an email I received from a guy named Paul Arvin. He is a life-long swimmer, having swum in high school, taught swimming in Malaysia, and done underwater photography for the World Wildlife Fund. He wondered why the 1650 yard freestyle is known as a “mile” when in fact it is 110 yards short of an actual mile (for those not familiar with feet and yards, a true mile is 1760 yards). It’s something I’ve always wondered, but have always just written off some strange misnomer that had something to do with the mathematical evil that is the Imperial system of weights and measures.

But no longer will I accept that as an excuse. So I set off across the internet and swimming community to discover  why we call 1650 yards a mile.

The first person I spoke with was Glenn Schroeder, a former age-group swim coach in Nevada.

TSC: Glenn, why are there only 1650 yards in a swimming mile?

Glenn: It probably has to do with those neat lap counters they use. If they went to 1750 yards, they’d have to add a 7 to the 10’s digit

TSC: But which is older, lap counters or the 1650?

Glenn: You got me there.

TSC:  And why not go to a  1700. That would still only require a 6.

Glenn: Because “1700” sounds too long.

I didn’t buy it, so I moved on. I started looking through results of old Olympics, and discovered that only one Olympics ever was swum in yards, which were the 1904 Olympics in St. Louis. The 1904 games included a mile swim that was a true mile. Unfortunately, the 1904 Olympics were swum in an artifical lake, rather than a pool, and as such was no help.

But if open-water swimming has a true mile (they still do today), then why can’t pool swimming get any closer? A 1750 or 1800 yard swim would be much closer. A key clue comes in looking through historical swimming records, such as these pool records from the North Sydney Olympic Pool.

Swimming pools in the United States, Australia, and the UK were often built in 55 yard distances in the early and middle part of the 20th century. Similar to 440-yard tracks, 55 yard pools were used because races could be made in convenient, even proportions of  a mile (880 yard half mile, 1760 yard mile, etc.). Looking through the records above, you’ll notice that there is both a record for the 1760 freestyle and the 1650 freestyle. That’s because, for a long time, the official mile distance in the United States was 1760 yards.

But then things changed.

The AAU (predecessors to USA-Swimming) relented and changed their long course meets from 55-yards to 50-meters in order to better prepare their swimmers for the Olympics. But the United States held firm with its short course pool at 25 yards, instead of the international meters. Large organizations training Olympians could afford the expense of converting their pools to 50 meters (which is about a foot short of a 55 yard pool) or building new ones, but to the tens of thousands of neighborhood and high school pools, this cost would’ve been prohibitive.

Henry Taylor of the UK, who was the first Olympic winner of the 1500m swim in 1908.

In international swimming, beginning with the 1908 Olympics (which were actually swum in a massive 100m pool built inside of a track oval), the 1500m freestyle was a logical standard distance event. At 1.5 kilometers, it made sense to the other 95% of the world that uses the metric system, and sporting fans were already familiar with the 1500m run that was a standard distance in the more familiar track & field discipline.

Once the United States switched to a system of 50-meter long course and 25-yard short course pools, they had to find a way to keep the two systems as similar as possible, so that when its athletes did travel to international competitions, they weren’t at too much of a disadvantage.

And this is where the 1650 freestyle came from. The closest emulation of a 1500m swim in a 25-yard pool is the 1650 freestyle (to be precise, 1500m=1640 yards, 1 foot, and 3.12 inches, give or take), so the AAU likely decided to replace the true old-fashioned mile with a newer, more worldly distance. People were so used to calling this distance the “mile” that the name lived on. So there you have it. It was that crazy Imperial system after all.

[Update: We got a great suggestion from one of our readers that the 66 lap swim was a result of Phillips 66’s major USA-Swimming sponsorship. Although it was an intriguing and amusing idea, from a marketing standpoint, the 1650 is not really a glamor event.

Our research shows that the Phillips 66 sponsorship of American Swimming started in 1973, whereas the earliest incarnation of a 1650 we can find is in 1959 in Australia. But that’s the kind of creativity we like here at the Swimmers Circle Mysteries!]

Now, as to whether USA-Swimming, the NFHS, and the NCAA should switch from 25 yards to 25 meter short course swimming is a whole different discussion for a different time. But for now, chalk this one up as a mystery solved.

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11 years ago

So you swim a standard 1500m, but call it 1650yds even though it’s nearer 1640yds and then pretend it’s a mile. That’s hilarious!

M. King
Reply to  spongebob
4 years ago

If you are aiming for a mile swim, why not just swim 80 lengths or 40 laps in a 25 yard pool and forget about sticking to a “true” mile. Silly discussion. Swim 500 yds for a warm up, then get on with a real workout, breaking it into yard segments. Get over worrying about how long the swim is and figure out how to get the most out of the distance you swim. Use speed work, stroke work and some breath control, then a cool down. Make the workout interesting by not just swimming back and forth the entire time using the same stroke or speed.

J. D.
Reply to  M. King
4 years ago

That is excellent advice to anyone swimming alone for fun and exercise and not very good advice for elite athletes trying to trying to absolutely master a single, standardized distance for the purpose of international competition.

Bill Colohan
Reply to  M. King
4 years ago

Actually, the number of laps one should swim (in yards) for the mile would be 36, which is approximately 1.023. So, they should be swimming 1800 yards, not 1650.

Reply to  Bill Colohan
4 years ago

So, if open-water swims are still a 1760-yard mile, then 66 lengths is my comparable distance to train. But, if I’m looking up “mile times” and paces to train, are those are likely 1650-yard miles? Thanks.

Reply to  Bill Colohan
3 years ago

This is how I count my mile – 36 laps. The swim log I have kept for the last several years is based on an actual yard or meter to mile conversion and in my home 25 yard pool that means my 36 laps is a bit over a mile.

Reply to  Bill Colohan
3 years ago

Indeed! I have always swum the36 laps or 72 times back and forth as was instructed and explained to me by my swim coach 40 years ago! He said the same thing you are saying and this is quiet the conversation piece at some health clubs. I like your explanation the best!

conspiracy theory????
11 years ago

I actually wondered the same thing many years ago and I was told (don’t know if there is any validity to this, but it sure does sound believable) that Phillips 66 was the major swim sponsor and they went with 66 laps to tie in with the company name, very smooth advertising, the phillips 66 mile…….hmmmmm? what do ya think??

Jon BonJovi
Reply to  conspiracy theory????
4 years ago

That took me back to getting Phillips 66 stocking caps for winning your heat at some unknown meet in the 80s, probably in Illinois.

10 years ago

I’m surprised that everyone challenges the 1650 short course mile, but not the 1500 long course mile! If we wanted to be closer to a mile in the US, we’d do a 1600 long course mile, and a 1750 short course mile. It’s either got something to do with the metric to standard conversion, or the fact that you have to do so many flipturns that it equals out compared to open water distances.

Reply to  Scott
5 years ago

The 1500 is like the metric mile. The 1500 in track is run internationally so I would assume that is where that comes from.

10 years ago

Thanks for an awesome article. Looking forward to reading more.

9 years ago

My Y requires 72 lengths instead of the 66 for each mile, if you are tracking for their 100 mile club. Or 200 mile club.

Reply to  Nnnyl
5 years ago

is that Y pool 25 meters?…or yards?

Robert Cunningham
6 years ago

I agree with NNN but I add laps to reach 40 to make up the kick offs of each pool end.

6 years ago

Thanks for a great article! You solved a tangle of opinions at my local swimming pool! I got my swimming training in the ‘early days’ in Illinois and we always did the 1760 mile in our workouts. I was not a long distance swimmer in competition so I never realized that the1650 had become the ‘mile’. Love the historical information and explanation.

Kirk Jensen
5 years ago

Either way you pour it, that’s a long damn drink of water!

About Braden Keith

Braden Keith

Braden Keith is the Editor-in-Chief and a co-founder/co-owner of SwimSwam.com. He first got his feet wet by building The Swimmers' Circle beginning in January 2010, and now comes to SwimSwam to use that experience and help build a new leader in the sport of swimming. Aside from his life on the InterWet, …

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