David Berkoff and Daichi Suzuki’s Underwater Duel in ‘88

Olivier Poirier-Leroy is a former national level swimmer based out of Victoria, BC. In feeding his passion for swimming, he has developed YourSwimBook, a powerful log book and goal setting guide made specifically for swimmers. Sign up for the YourSwimBook newsletter (free) and get weekly motivational tips by clicking here.

Swimming has always had it’s pioneers, those that break the mold with a new technique or race strategy, breaking the glass ceiling of what we believe to be possible with the sport. Weathering the resistance of traditionalists these renegades are the ones who help push the boundaries and expectations in swimming.

During the mid to late 1980’s it was a group of swimmers led by David Berkoff who showed how effective the use of the underwater dolphin kick could be, spawning a pack of imitators that would cause FINA to scurry to amend limitations on the amount of metres a swimmer could perform underwater.

Since then dolphin kicking has become a fixture of starts and turns in every stroke, from current 100 yard backstroke American record holder Nick Thoman, to proficient underwater kickers Ryan Lochte and Michael Phelps, and to this we owe a nod to Berkoff, Suzuki, a little known swimmer named Jesse Vassallo and the “Berkoff Blastoff.”


While many hail David Berkoff as being the trailblazer in underwater dolphin kicking, it was actually a young swimmer who trained under Mark Schubert at Mission Viejo in the late 1970’s who deserves the credit.

In 1976 at US Nationals a 14 year old Jesse Vassallo was lined up to swim the 100m backstroke. In the lane next to him was eventual 4-time Olympic Gold medalist John Naber. Vassallo, who was a foot shorter than the 6’5″ Naber, figured that he could do a bunch of dolphin kicks off the start to avoid the wash from the next lane.

Unfortunately for Vassallo, he would never get the full credit or even exposure for the innovation. He would peak around 1980, just in time to qualify for the US Olympic squad that would have gone to the Olympics had they not boycotted.

Although Vassallo never got to show off his new technique to a broader audience, the idea had been planted within the mind of a young David Berkoff.

When Berkoff entered college in 1985, he was considered a solid backstroker. Not exceptional, but solid. Over the next couple years at Harvard under Joe Bernal, Berkoff would play around with his start, building up his start so that he was going up to 40m underwater.

With his dolphin kick steadily improving, so did his placings nationally. In 1986 he placed 3rd at the NCAA Championships; a year later he’d break the NCAA record in 48.20.

At the 1988 Olympic Trials Berkoff became the first man to break the 55 second mark, doing it twice (54.95/54.91), and displacing former record holder Igor Polianski (USSR) as the favorite heading into the Games in Seoul later that summer.


In the preliminaries Berkoff would lower the world record for a third time, swimming a ridiculous 54.51. In an interview with NBC following heats he’d state that it would be a race between him and former world record holder Polianski (who qualified second fastest), and that it would take a world record to win gold later that night.

Flying under the radar was Japan’s Daichi Suzuki, who swam the third fastest time in the prelims. Suzuki had also become quite proficient at the underwater dolphin kick, typically swimming the first 25m underwater. Suzuki was also no stranger to the international stage, having competed at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles, where he would come short of making the final.

Most notably — and something that was completely passed over by much of the swimming community– during the 1984 Games Suzuki had already adopted the underwater dolphin kick, going even further than Vassallo had been at that point.

Although Suzuki wasn’t picked by many to win in Seoul, in subsequent interviews, Suzuki – who was 21 years old at the time of his victory in ’88 – didn’t feel like the underdog heading into the final that day in Seoul, even though Berkoff had posted a world record mark that morning.

Having saved energy by not giving his all in the preliminaries, and also noticing that Berkoff tended to perform best in the mornings, Suzuki was feeling confident that he could win.

In the final Suzuki would stay underwater for an extra five metres, with the pair being shadowed by Polianski as the trio – in lane’s 3, 4, and 5 – would all stay underwater until the 30m mark while the rest of the field all swam above the surface.

Berkoff – who was visibly last off the start – would turn first with a half body length lead in 25.47, two tenths slower than his split from the morning. In the last 8m Polyansky and Suzuki closed hard and fast on Berkoff, who would be unable to hold off the challengers.

Suzuki would touch first to win gold in a time of 55.05, Berkoff in second place in 55.18, and Polyansky taking the bronze in 55.20.


In the wake of the 1988 Seoul Olympics, FINA made changes to restrict the maximum number of metres a backstroke swimmer could perform underwater dolphin kicks. Citing athlete safety, within months of Seoul the rule limited swimmers to going underwater for 10m off of the start and turn, a rule that was relaxed to 15m in 1991. (Freestyle and butterfly were given similar restrictions in regards to face-down dolphin kicking in 1998.)

Even though FINA amended the rules to allow for shortened underwaters, the NCAA didn’t immediately follow suit. As a result at the 1989 NCAA Championships in Indianapolis Berkoff swam what was at the time the fastest time in American history in the 100 yards backstroke, swimming a 47.02, knocking off nearly a second off of Jay Mortenson’s former mark of 47.97 set two years earlier.

Suzuki retired immediately after having won his gold medal, while Berkoff would finish out his collegiate career with Harvard, and also returning to win another gold medal swimming the heats of the winning US medley relay at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics, as well as a bronze in the 100m backstroke behind Mark Tewksbury of Canada and American Jeff Rouse.

The sport continues to be a huge part of both of their lives.

Last summer Suzuki was named to president of the Japanese Swimming Federation, making him the youngest at 46 years of age in the history of the position. In the years since Seoul Suzuki has been active at nearly all levels of the sport, having been the varsity coach at Juntendo University, as well as sitting on the board of Japan’s Anti-Doping Agency, as well as serving on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s Athlete Committee.

Berkoff got involved with coaching as well, and he is currently the head coach of the Missoula Aquatic Club in Montana after finishing law school. Berkoff was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame in 2005 and is now also a member of USA Swimming’s Board of Directors.

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7 years ago

On behalf of short swimmers everywhere, we thank you Messrs. Vassallo, Berkoff and Suzuki, for giving us a fighting chance.

Reply to  Evilwatersprite
7 years ago

I never knew the legendary Jesse Vassallo was only 5’5″!!! Even more impressed, if that’s possible…

Reply to  liquidassets
7 years ago

He’s not 5’5″ now, he was 5’5″ when he was 14 years old.

Reply to  liquidassets
7 years ago

JV is 5′ 9″, according to wikipedia. I met him once, and this seems about right.

Reply to  DL
7 years ago

I wouldn’t say that Jesse was “a little known swimmer”.

Reply to  MarkB
6 years ago

Maybe he meant to say “little, known swimmer”

Sorry, couldn’t help myself.

Reply to  MarkB
6 years ago

I would go further – all of us that swam in the 1970’s were VERY aware who Jesse Vassallo was, and it was a privilege to swim in the same water with him (and many others this author might consider “little known”). Coaches were teaching underwater dolphin kicks on starts and off turns on the three allowable strokes by the late 1970’s due to people like Jesse Vassallo. Long before David Berkoff and Daichi Suzuki.

Reply to  Evilwatersprite
6 years ago

Ricardo prado was only 1.68m when he became WR holder of 400 IM..

Even shorter.. was there in the last 30/40 years an even shorter male WR holder?

7 years ago

incredible privilege to be a teammate of dave berkoff when he made the transition from very good to exceptional/transforming! the first few meets with the underwater were awesome to watch

M Palota
7 years ago

Jesse Vassalo was a very cool guy… Part of that Mission Viejo Nadadores team that swam huge, huge distance in the late ’70’s. He was a very good 400 IM’er, too, and had a decent mile as well. In fact, his long-course mile time (From 1976!!) is still the US NAG for 13-14 Boys!

Weird story: I think it was around ’78 and the Nadadores were up in Vancouver, Canada for what is now the Mel Zajac meet. It was at the Aquatic Centre under the Burrard Street bridge and Vassalo was playing pick-up basketball on court right at the pool. He twisted or something and blew his knee out! He was never the same after that.

Like said,… Read more »

Mark Savage
Reply to  M Palota
7 years ago

As of mid-2009, Vassallo is Head Age Group Coach for Fort Lauderdale Aquatics in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Olivier Poirier-Leroy
Reply to  M Palota
7 years ago

The Vancouver Aquatic Centre! Great memories of that pool, even though it had a slanted roof so you couldn’t depend on the ceiling to tell you if you were going straight or not swimming backstroke. Typically ended up with a mouthful of lane rope if you tried.

The pickup games and bump tournaments that took place between events at that pool, and later at the UBC aquatic centre during were Zajac legendary. Not much more satisfying as a little age grouper than being able to crush an Olympic finalists basketball out into the parking lot during a heated game of bump.

Reply to  Olivier Poirier-Leroy
6 years ago

You’re bringing back memories. I did my first ever Canadian nationals there in 1976. The water was salty and so buoyancy was slightly better than at most pools. Looking back, I’m surprised that they got away with holding major meets there.

kevin m
7 years ago

http://www.pompanopiranhas.com/Contact.jsp?team=fgpomp coaching in the ft lauderdale area

T Hill
7 years ago

Actually a young lady name Dawn Hewitt from St. Petersburg, Fla. was doing that as well (70’s & early 80’s) as she had her shoulder lock out over her head at times and couldn’t swim much,so we suggested she doing more kicking, as I didn’t want to put her shoulder back in. She had great underwater kick and used it well at Auburn under coach John Asmuth in the 50 & 1oo back took very few strokes – think 1 per 25 in the 50 and similar in the 100 back and did well at collegiate nats. Dave you made it cool and didn’t have to do Joe’s D-sets or maybe you did them kicking ? Now we limit folks… Read more »

Skip Thompson
7 years ago

Another swimmer that deserves honorable mention with the 3 swimmers that you mention is Mike Ross. When he swam for Princeton he swam completely underwater and helped his relay win NCAA Championships in 1989 and 1990. I remember seeing the 200 Medley Relay and when he swam his back leg he had to surface at the 25 mark because you had to touch the wall with your hand, then he flipped on his back old school style because that was the rule back then and swam the last 25 completely under water came up after the flags and touched. David Berkoff was at this same meet but Harvard was not in the final so I didn’t see him swim the… Read more »

Lennart van Haaften
7 years ago

I’m still sad that they restricted freestyle swimming too in 1998.

All strokes except freestyle are necessarily limited because we want swimmers to use a certain technique for most of the race (on top of the water). Therefore an underwater limit makes sense, otherwise the strokes would converge too much.

Freestyle however, as the name suggests, should be really `free style’, without ANY limitations on technique. Even though it affects only the very best swimmers in the world, and only in the shortest events, I feel FINA made a big mistake here, and this will aggravate as swimmers become better.

I think swimming deserves real freestyle events, just like track has real `free running’ events. Imagine a rule saying that… Read more »

6 years ago

That 100 Back is always a fun race to watch. Suzuki and Berkoff go just over 30 meters. Sean Murphy from Canada actually goes farthest at just under 40 meters and all but 3 in the field go 25m+.

Craziest thing is that no one in the whole field even goes 10m off the turn. You would have thought someone may have thought going 20-25m off both walls may be better than 35 of the start and 7 off the turn.

About Olivier Poirier-Leroy

Olivier Poirier-Leroy

Olivier Poirier-Leroy has been involved in competitive swimming for most of his life. Starting off at the age of 6 he was thrown in the water at the local pool for swim lessons and since then has never wanted to get out. A nationally top ranked age grouper as both a …

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